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We strew the flowers 
'Mid hymn and prayer, 
And set the flag among them there, 
And love's eternal pledge renew : 
The Red Stripe for the old ; the White 
For Peace in Heaven's unfolding light ; 
For future years, celestial Blue. 
Comrades, we go ! — to those who fell 
No heart will ever say farewell, 
They rise forever in review ! 
March forward — to the Right ! 



The United States of America and His Majesty the 
Emperor of all the Russias, having thought proper, with a 
view to the better administration of justice and of the 
prevention of crime in their respective territories and 
jurisdictions, that persons convicted of or charged with 
any of the crimes hereinafter enumerated, and having 
escaped from justice, should, in certain cases, be recipro- 
cally delivered up, have resolved to conclude a convention 
to this end, and have named as their plenipotentiaries, to 
wit : 

The President of the United States of America, and 
His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, having 
communicated to each other their full powers, found to be 
in good and due form, have agreed upon the following 
articles : 

Article 1. The high contracting parties reciprocally 
agree to surrender to each other upon mutual requisitions, 
and according to their respective regulations and pro- 
cedure, persons who, being charged with, or convicted of 
the commission, in the territory of the contracting parties, 
of any of the crimes and offences specified in the follow- 
ing article, shall seek an asylum or be found within the 
territory of the other. Provided that this shall only be 
done upon such evidence of criminality as, according to 
the laws of the place where the fugitive or person so 
charged should be found, would justify his or her appre- 
hension and commitment for trial if the crime or offence 
had been there committed. 

Art. 2. Persons convicted of or charged with any of 
the following crimes, as well as attempts to commit, or 
participate in the same, as an accessory before the fact, 
provided such attempt or participation is punishable by 
the laws of both countries, shall be delivered up in virtue 
of the provisions of this convention : 

1. Murder and manslaughter, when voluntary. 

2. Rape, abortion. 

3. Arson. 

4. Burglary, to be defined by the act of breaking and 
entering by night into the dwelling house of another with 
intent to commit felony ; robbery, defined to be the act 
of feloniously and forcibly taking from the person of 
another money or goods by violence or by putting him in 
fear; larceny, when the value of the property shall 
exceed 200 or 300 roubles. 

5. Forgery and the utterance of forged papers, includ- 
ing public, sovereign or Governmental acts. 

6. The fabrication or circulation of counterfeit money, 
either coin or paper, or of counterfeit public bonds, 
coupons of the public debt, bank notes, obligations or 
in general of any counterfeit title or instrument or credit ; 
the counterfeiting of seals and dies, impressions, stamps 
and marks of State and public administrations and the 
utterance thereof. 

7. The embezzlement of public moneys by public 
officers or depositaries. 

8. Embezzlement by any person or persons hired or 
salaried, to the detriment of their employers, when the 
value of the property so taken shall exceed 200 or 300 

9. Piracy or mutiny on shipboard, whenever the crew 
or part thereof shall have taken possession of the vessel 
by fraud or by violence against the commander. 

10. Wilful or unlawful destruction or obstruction of 
railroads which endangers human life. 

Art. 3. If it be made to appear that extradition is 
sought with a view to try or punish the person demanded 
for an offence of a political character, surrender shall not 
take place, nor shall any person surrendered be tried or 
punished for any political offence committed previously 
to his extradition, nor for any offence other than that for 
which the extradition was granted ; nor shall the surrender 
of any person be demanded for an offence committed 
prior to the date at which this convention shall take 

An attempt against the life of the head of either 
Government or against that of any member of his family, 
when such attempt comprises the act either of murder, of 
assassination, or of poisoning, or of accessoryship there- 
to, shall not be considered a political offence or an act 
considered with such an offence. 

Art. 4. The contracting parties shall not be required 
to deliver up their own citizens or subjects in virtue of the 
stipulations of the present convention. 

Art. 5. If the person demanded be held for trial in 
the country on which the demand is made it shall be 
optional to the latter to grant extradition or to proceed 
with the trial ; provided, that, unless the trial shall be for 
the crime for which the fugitive is claimed, the delay 
shall not prevent ultimate extradition. 

Art. 6. Requisition for the surrender of fugitives 
from justice, accused or convicted of any of the crimes or 
offences hereinbefore mentioned, shall be made by the 
diplomatic agent of the demanding Government. In 
case of absence of such agent, either from the country 
or from the seat of Government, such requisitions may 
be made by the superior consular office. 

When the person whose surrender is requested shall 
already have been convicted of the crime or offence for 
which extradition is demanded, the demand therefor shall 
be accompanied by the copy of the judgment of the court 
that pronounced the sentence, bearing the seal of said 
court. The signature of the Judge thereof shall be 
authenticated by the proper executive officer of the 
demanding Government, whose official character shall 
in turn be attested by the diplomatic agent or superior 
consular office of the Government on which the demand 
is made. When the person whose surrender is asked 
shall merely be charged with the commission of an 
extraditable crime or offence the application for extradi- 
tion shall be accompanied by an authenticated copy of 
the warrant of arrest or of some other equivalent judicial 



document issued by a judge or a magistrate duly author- 
ized to do so, and likewise by authenticated copies, 
depositions or declarations made by such magistrate, 
and setting forth the acts with which the fugitive is 

Art. 7. It shall be lawful for any competent judicial 
authority of the United States upon production of a certi- 
ficate by the Secretary of State stating that request has 
been made by the Imperial Government of Russia for the 
provisional arrest of a person convicted or accused of the 
commission therein of a crime or offence extraditable 
under this convention, and upon complaint, duly made, 
that such crime or offence has been so committed, to 
issue his warrant for the apprehension of such person. 
But if the formal requisition for surrender, with the 
formal proofs hereinbefore mentioned, be not made as 
aforesaid by the diplomatic agent of the demanding 
Government, or, in his absence, by the competent 
consular officer, within forty days from the date of the 
commitment of the fugitive, the prisoner shall be dis- 
charged from custody, and the Imperial Russian Govern- 
ment will, upon the request of the Government of the 
United States transmitted through the diplomatic agent 
of the United States, or in his absence, through the 
competent consular officer, secure the provisional arrest 
of persons convicted or accused of the commission therein 
of crimes or offences extraditable under this convention. 
But if the formal requisition for surrender, with the 
formal proofs hereinbefore mentioned, be not made as 
aforesaid by the diplomatic agent of the demanding 
Government, or in his absence, by the competent consular 
officer, within forty days from the date of arrest of the 
fugitive, the prisoner shall be discharged from custody. 

Art. 8. Articles in the possession of the fugitive 
that have aided the commission of the crime or offence, 
and any article or property which was obtained through, 
the commission of the crime or offence charged, and also 
any other article that may serve to convict, shall, if the 
demand for extradition be granted, be delivered to the 
authorities of the demanding Government, even where, 
owing to the death or escape of the fugitive, extradition 
cannot take place. Such delivery shall also include 
articles of the character above mentioned which the 
fugitive may have concealed or deposited in the country 
of refuge and which may subsequently be found there. 
The rights of third parties to the above-mentioned articles 
shall, nevertheless, be duly respected, and they shall be 
returned to the owners free of expense after the conclusion 
of the case. The right of the Government on which the 
demand for extradition is made to temporarily retain 
such articles when they may be necessary for the insti- 
tution of criminal proceedings occasioned by the same act 
that has given rise to the demand for extradition, or by 
any other act, is admitted. 

Art. 9. Tn case the person whose extradition is 
demanded under the present convention is also claimed 
by another Government, preference shall be given to the 
Government whose demand shall be earlier in point of 
time, provided the Government from which extradition 
is sought is not bound by treaty to give preference 

Art. 10. The expense occasioned by the arrest, 
detention and transportation of persons whose extradi- 
tion is required shall be borne by the Government 
making the application. 

Art. 11. The present convention shall be ratified, 
and the ratification shall be exchanged at St. Petersburg 
as soon as possible. It shall take effect on the 20th day 
after its promulgation in the manner prescribed by the 
laws in force in the territories of the contracting parties. 
It shall remain in force for six months after notice of its 
termination shall have been given by either of the con- 
tracting parties. 

In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries 
have signed the present convention, and have thereunto 
affixed the seals of their Governments. 

Done in duplicate at the city of Washington on the 28th 
day of March, 1887. 

T. F. Bayard, 
C. Struve, 



The brute instincts and habits of the human race are 
yet mainly predominant, even in civilized and so-called 
Christian communities. Faith in phj-sical force is every- 
where greater than in moral influence. Class interests 
and monopolies are still mighty factors in the government 
and intercourse of nations. The untiring and sleepless 
energy and activity of those who are directly interested 
in the maintenance and development of the military 
system have carried the modern world to the verge of 
disaster and rendered well-nigh intolerable the burdens of 
an armed Peace. The open and almost ostentatious 
magnifying of force which has been the habit of States- 
men and Rulers has not been relinquished. The rivalry 
of the great Powers in the increase of their armaments 
has lost none of its madness. The internal strifes and 
anxieties of nations — those between class and class, 
between labor and capital, for instance — are not lessening 
either in number or virulence. But, notwithstanding all 
this, there are everywhere signs of progress and encour- 

There is a visible growth of Peace sentiment, and an 
expanding conviction both of the folly and wickedness of 
war, and also of the practicability and necessity of more 
effectual means of settling international and other dis- 
putes. There is manifestly, too, a rapid increase in the 
number of men and women who can see and feel, and 
who act on the conviction that the working out of the 
great Christian principles, though they may not be 
acknowledged as such, offers the only hope for the 
future of humanity. Apparently there never was a time 
in which men generally, and even politicians themselves, 
were so firmly convinced that there is only one effectual 
settlement of social and national difficulties — the just and 
righteous settlement — which is lasting and satisfactory. 
There is not only a growing feeling after, and a seeking 
for, this settlement, but there is a very solemn sense that 
it must be found, before, in any real and large and lasting 
form, Society can see even the beginnings of Peace. 
Military methods and the spirit of domination which they 
embody, are everywhere revealing their impotence as 
prominent factors in the life of humanity. Amidst all the 
social movements of the times, the experiments in the 
direction of concert and co-operation which constitute so